This report prepared jointly by Afry and Iberdrola aims to identify the keys to a successful and efficient decarbonisation of the energy sector by 2050 in Europe, with a focus on Great Britain and Spain – the energy sector being in this study power generation, heat, and road and rail transport.
It concludes that the optimal pathway to a zero-carbon future needs fast and massive penetration of electrical vehicles, that heat pumps will be key to decarbonise buildings and a mix of energies are needed to allow the efficient decarbonisation of industry. In the power sector, a generation mix largely dominated by renewables means flexibility must migrate towards demand-side, where EVs and heat pumps connected to smart grids will help demand balance the generation profile and avoid curtailments or load losses. Hydrogen will be a key complement to electrification, mainly produced with renewable electricity.
Source: ÅF Pöyry AB
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